Luxembourg recovered quickly from the COVID-19 pandemic thanks to extensive policy support. However, the impact of the war in Ukraine is exacerbating inflationary pressures, alongside labour market shortages. This highlights the importance of boosting the resilience of the Luxembourgish economy. Longer-term fiscal sustainability challenges should be addressed by improving the efficiency of public spending through regular spending reviews, limiting early exit from the labour market and undertaking much-needed pension reform. Removing disincentives to work and strengthening the effectiveness of active labour market policies, in particular for older workers and disadvantaged youth, would boost employment and lower skill mismatches. Digital skills need to improve and life-long learning should be strengthened. Increasing private R&D spending, improving diffusion of digitalisation, especially for small firms, and reducing the regulatory burden would support productivity growth and economic diversification. Reaching the climate objective of net zero emissions by 2050 will require bold policy action, requiring a clear carbon pricing path and adjustments to urbanisation and transport policies.