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최신자료
A Review of Human Development and Environmental Outcomes
World Bank
2023.05.25
As climate change and its impact on the physical environment become increasingly evident, its relationship with human development outcomes is becoming a key area of research. While numerous researchers have studied the ways in which the immediate environment affects human capital, literature on the impact of human capital on the environment remains scarce. Despite the heightened interest in understanding the linkages between human development outcomes and environmental factors, most studies of this relationship are theoretical, correlational, or observational, thus lacking causality. This paper surveys the literature and explores how evidence can be established for policies focusing on human development and environmental outcomes. The paper presents a conceptual framework incorporating direct and indirect pathways ? including cognitive and noncognitive factors through which improved education can lead to better environmental behaviors. Of the 31 studies reviewed, a majority (27 studies) present observational findings, while only a few (four studies, or 13 percent) use a quasi-experimental design to establish causality. The few causal studies suggest that it is possible to change attitudes but more difficult to change environmental behaviors. The review raises the key question of whether policies aimed at improving climate change awareness through education can effectively produce long-lasting changes in pro-environmental behaviors. Much more work is needed to advance understanding of how human capital policy can help mitigate or promote adaptation to climate change.