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최신자료
Are Global Value Chains Women Friendly in Developing Countries ? Evidence from Firm-Level Data
World Bank
2024.01.15
Despite the efforts made to increase women’s inclusion in the economy, they are still underrepresented in trade in general and in global value chains in particular. Thus, this paper aims at examining the impact of global value chains on women’s trade participation as entrepreneurs and employees. It also analyzes how this effect is moderated through external (gender provisions in trade agreements) and internal (investment climate variables) factors. The analysis uses firm-level data for 154 developing economies and emerging markets with a special focus on the Middle East and North Africa region, being one of the regions with the lowest female labor force participation. The main findings show that global value chains integration increases the likelihood of being a female owner and the share of female employees, especially production ones. A less robust negative effect is found for the impact on being a female top manager. These effects are moderated by the inclusion of gender provisions in trade agreements and by the characteristics of the investment climate (especially tax policy, access to finance, and corruption). These results remain robust after controlling for the endogeneity of global value chains using an instrumental variable approach and a propensity score estimation method where the treatment is being part of a global value chains. Thus, global value chains can be perceived as a tool that boosts women’s empowerment in emerging economies, especially in the Middle East and North Africa region.