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최신자료
The Role of Firm Dynamics in Aggregate Productivity and Formal Job Flows in Zambia
World Bank
2024.04.19
Zambia’s private sector must deliver quality jobs at scale to keep up with its expanding working age population, contribute to economic transformation, and reduce poverty. This entails both the creation of high-quality jobs and productivity improvement among existing jobs and firms. This paper analyzes the dynamics of formal firms to identify the drivers and barriers to productivity, formal employment, and formal wage growth in Zambia. Leveraging firm and worker administrative tax data from Zambia, the paper decomposes labor productivity and wage growth among formal firms and workers in Zambia into within-firm, between-firm, inter-sectoral, and dynamic components. The findings show that the aggregate labor productivity of formal firms declined over 2014-21, driven by secular within-firm declines in the non-mining industry and service sectors. By contrast, labor productivity grew in agriculture and remained flat in mining over the same period. Real wage trends for formal workers have mostly mirrored labor productivity dynamics, declining 40-50 percent across non-agriculture sectors but growing slightly in agriculture, largely driven by within-firm shifts rather than between-firm or between-sector dynamics. The declines in labor productivity and wages reflect business environment challenges related to access to finance and electricity, as well as burdensome formal compliance requirements and competition with the informal sector. Within-firm labor productivity challenges also reflect low skills and capacity―including low technology adoption―among both firms and workers.