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Barrier or Opportunity ? How Trade Regulations Shape Colombian Firms’ Export Strategies
World Bank
2024.06.07
Firms increasingly must contend with trade regulations to access foreign markets. This paper quantifies the relative importance of trade regulations and their heterogeneous effects for Colombian firms exporting to Latin America between 2007 and 2017, focusing on specific types and channels. Using panel evidence from a firm-level gravity model with a difference-in-differences identification strategy, technical barriers to trade and quantity control measures both decrease trade on average. Other non-tariff measures and tariffs play a minor role. The technical barriers to trade and quantity measures reallocate trade from small to big firms. The same mechanism benefits firms participating in global value chains. However, quantity controls make it more likely that big firms will leave export markets to the benefit of smaller ones. The results control for the endogeneity of trade regulations and are robust to the use of different samples and measures of firm size.