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전망·동향
Historical Differences in Female-Owned Manufacturing Establishments: The United States, 1850-1880
NBER
2024.06.18
We characterize female-owned manufacturing establishments using newly digitized manuscripts from the US Census of Manufactures (1850, 1860, 1870, 1880). Female-owned establishments were smaller than male-owned establishments and had lower capital-to-output ratios, which could reflect more-constrained financial access and other distortions. Female-owned establishments employed more women and paid women higher wages, creating a potential cycle between increased female business ownership and increased female labor market participation. Female-owned establishments concentrated in sub-industries like women‘s clothing and millinery, which is associated with some but not all of these differences. We also show how female owners differed from other women in the Population Census.